Sunday, October 16, 2016

Lithium Ion Capacitors: An Effective EDLC Replacement


An accepted energy solution, conventional Electrical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) have many notable drawbacks relating to self-discharge characteristics, energy density, reliability, longevity and thermal design. Taiyo Yuden Lithium Ion Capacitors overcome these issues and are an effective replacement for EDLCs. Lithium Ion Capacitors are hybrid capacitors, featuring the best characteristics of both EDLC and Lithium Ion Secondary Batteries (LIB).

EDLCs were first created in Japan in the 1970s and began appearing in various home appliances in the 1990s. Since the 2000s, they have been used in mobile phones and digital cameras. EDLCs are typically used to protect against sudden momentary drops or interruptions in power. They can instantaneously output large amounts of power, while a battery cannot. They are frequently used as backup power sources in servers and storage devices for integrated circuits, processors, memory and more.

While EDLCs are intended to be backup power sources, conventional EDLCs suffer from a phenomenon known as self-discharge, where the capacitor will gradually lose its charge over time. Self-discharge can occur more rapidly during exposure to high temperature environments.

The extremely low self-discharge of a Lithium Ion Capacitor, even in high-heat environments, ensures a long-lasting charge.

Furthermore, Lithium Ion Capacitors have no risk of thermal runaway. No additional thermal design considerations, space or components are necessary when designing with a Lithium Ion Capacitor.

The use of Lithium Ion Capacitors is steadily growing. They are increasingly relied on as supplementary power sources in manufacturing and medical equipment, where even momentary drops in voltage can be critical. They serve to compensate for uneven voltage levels with solar panels and even as primary power sources in small devices. Most significantly, Lithium Ion Capacitors are becoming a preferred backup solution for power interruption in servers and other devices.


Taiyo Yuden - Now in its 64th year, Tokyo-based TAIYO YUDEN CO., LTD. is a worldwide manufacturer of surface-mount and leaded passive components, Bluetooth modules, CCFT inverters and recordable digital media. With approximately 50% of the worldwide market in high-frequency multilayer chip inductors used in cell phones, the company reports annual sales of nearly US$2.06B. Worldwide, TAIYO YUDEN employs more than twenty thousand people. The company's North American affiliate, TAIYO YUDEN (U.S.A.), INC., operates sales and engineering offices in Chicago, IL, Raleigh, NC, Irving, TX, and in California at San Jose and San Diego.

See the complete article by By Atsuya Sato; Contributed By Digi-Key Electronics

Source Link:

Tuesday, October 4, 2016


Vancouver, B.C. & Toronto, Ontario – Lomiko Technologies, a 100% owned subsidiary of Lomiko Metals Inc. (“Lomiko”) (TSX-V: LMR, OTC: LMRMF, FSE: DH8B), presented a summary of the Graphene Energy Storage Devices Corp. (GESD) Graphene Supercapacitor Project at the Battery Material Conference hosted by Mines and Money at the St. Andrews Club in Toronto September 26, 2016.

“New smart phones and electric vehicles do not need new batteries. They need high-density energy storage supercapacitors that provide 10 times the energy in the same size package. New device power requirements will quickly outstrip the current battery designs and the materials used in them.” states A. Paul Gill, CEO Lomiko Technologies Inc. “There is a buzz about lithium because people are talking about supplying materials for current designs such as the Lithium-ion battery. Graphene ESD sets out in a different direction. It is focused on making a better energy storage device.”

Figure 1 Graphene ESD Supercapacitor Prototype


Supercapacitors are promising energy storage devices. Due to their fast charge-discharge characteristics, low equivalent series resistance, long cycle life, wide operating temperatures, supercapacitors are finding application in transportation, industrial and grid energy storage.

There is rapidly growing demand for capacitive energy storage systems with high power and energy densities. However, individual supercapacitor units have very low stand-off voltage, < 3 V.

In order to increase the operation voltage to a practical level, > 3 V, the EDLCs are connected in series stacks. The EDLCs need to be interconnected and balanced with an electronic circuit, which results in a bulky and expensive energy storage system.

Currently, GESD is working on scale-up of the technology and an in-field evaluation of the energy storage unit with Stony Brook University. The GESD-SBU team demonstrated design and implementation of a sealed high-voltage EDLCs energy storage unit. The unit is internally balanced; there is no need for an external circuit. The electrode is very cost-effective nanocarbon composite either of a commercial carbon or of graphene platelets with carbon nanotubes.

The nano-carbon electrode materials were used for deposition and assembly of a working prototype of an internally balanced high-voltage energy storage unit. The bench-top prototype unit, tested up to 10 V, exhibited good discharge characteristics and charge retention. This development enables new compact energy storage solutions for grid and vehicular applications.

About Graphene ESD

Graphene ESD is developing energy storage based on graphene platelets. High surface area and outstanding electrical conductivity of graphene enable devices with a unique combination of fast charge/discharge and large stored energy. Our device utilizes graphene platelets manufactured from high-quality natural graphite from a low-cost scalable process.  Graphene ESD is 40% owned by Lomiko Technologies Inc., a 100% owned subsidiary of Lomiko Metals (“Lomiko”) (TSX-V: LMR, OTC: LMRMF, FSE: DH8B). e-mail:

For more information on Lomiko Technologies and Lomiko Metals, review the website at --

Saturday, August 27, 2016

Lithium-Ion Capacitors in

Wind and Solar Power Generation

Global Market Forecast & Analysis

Publish:                    2016
Text Pages:               346
Also Included:            Excel Worksheets with 96- Market Forecast Data Tables
                                    PowerPoint Slides – Summary Market Forecast Data Figures
Fee:                            US$3,690

Market Forecast & Analysis: 2015-2025

This ElectroniCast report provides a market forecast and analysis of the worldwide use of lithium-ion capacitors (Li-ion capacitor LIC) used as energy storage devices in renewable energy: wind power generation and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation applications.

A capacitor is an electrical device that stores or releases electricity through rapid electrostatic reactions. Compared with a battery that stores electricity through slow chemical reactions, a capacitor makes it possible to charge and discharge electricity almost instantaneously with a long cycle life. 

Lithium-Ion Capacitors (LICs) have a higher power density as compared to batteries and LIC’s are safer in use than Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs), since thermal runaway reactions may occur with the LIBs. Compared to an Electric Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC), the lithium-ion capacitor has a higher output voltage. They both have similar power densities, but energy density of a lithium-ion capacitor is higher.

Lithium-ion capacitors are characterized by an ability to charge with even weak current, and as a result, demand is expected to increase substantially in environmentally friendly fields such as wind and solar power generation. The use of lithium-ion capacitors as independent power supplies in combination with wind turbines (wind power) and photovoltaic (PV) panels is being considered for a wide range of devices such as LED-based streetlights, surveillance cameras, security sensors, and other applications.

Wind Turbine Power             Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity.

Solar Panels - Photovoltaics (PV)              Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material.

Combined (Hybrid) Wind and Solar Electric Systems     The peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year; therefore, a small “hybrid” electric system that combines wind and solar technologies can offer several advantages over either single system.

LIC Forecast by Renewable Energy Product-Type           The market forecast and analysis of the consumption of lithium-ion capacitors is segmented into the following power generation products:

·        Standalone wind turbine
·        Standalone solar photovoltaic (PV)
·        Hybrid (combined) wind turbine and solar photovoltaic (PV)

LIC Market Forecast Application Categories        The use of LICs are also segmented by two major End-User categories:

·        Government/Commercial
·        Residential/Non-Specific

The Government/Commercial category, with an emphasis on the government sector using wind and solar PV light emitting diode (LED) streetlights, as well as roadway signage and signals.

The historical (actual) data for 2015 plus the market forecast (2016-2025) is presented for Lithium-Ion capacitors for use with wind turbine and/or solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation.  The Lithium-Ion capacitor (LIC) market forecast data are segmented by the following functions:

·        Consumption Value (US$, million)
·        Quantity (number/Farad: Million)
·        Average Selling Prices (ASP $, each Farad)

Nominal Capacitance - Farad (F)               The farad (symbol: F) is the SI unit of capacitance (SI is the International System of Units).  Capacitance is the ability of a capacitor to store energy in an electric field. Capacitance is also a measure of the amount of electric potential energy stored (or separated) for a given electric potential.

Geographic Region Segments       The market data of LICs in wind/solar products in the selected end-user applications are presented by their use in the following regional segments and sub-regions:

·        Global (Total)
    • America
      • United States of America
      • Rest of America
    • EMEA
      • Northern Europe
      • Southern Europe
      • Western Europe
      • Eastern Europe
      • Middle East and Africa
    • APAC
      • People’s Republic of China (PRC)
      • Japan
      • Republic of Korea (ROK)
Rest of APAC

Information Base

This study is based on analysis of information obtained continually over the past several years, but updated through mid-February 2016.  During this period, ElectroniCast analysts performed interviews with authoritative and representative individuals in the capacitor, battery, fuel cell, wind turbine, solar photovoltaic product(s) manufacturing (materials, chips, cells, packaging, modules, devices, associated parts/pieces, fittings/fixtures) and building/facility management, local/state and federal government policy and management, LED street lighting manufacturers, LED signage and signal manufacturers, security video camera installers, facility security/sensors, product distributors, retail store management, import/export, and other.

The interviews were conducted principally with:

·        Engineers, marketing personnel and management at manufacturers of LIBs, EDLCs, LICs, and wind turbine and solar panels/photovoltaic (materials, packaged LICs, solar panels, wind turbine/parts) as well as other related technologies.

·        Design group leaders, engineers, marketing personnel and market planners at major users and potential users of wind turbine and solar panels and lithium-ion capacitors (LICs).

·        Other industry experts, including those focused on standards activities, intellectual property (IP)/patents, trade associations, and venture capital/financial investments. 
The interviews covered issues of technology, R&D support, pricing, contract size, reliability, documentation, installation/maintenance crafts, standards, supplier competition and other topics.

Customers and distributors also were interviewed, to obtain their estimates of quantities received and average prices paid.  Customer estimates of historical and expected near term future growth of their application are obtained. Their views of use of new technology products were obtained.

The analyst then considered customer expectations of near term growth in their application, plus forecasted economic payback of investment, technology trends and changes in government regulations, to derive estimated growth rates of quantity and price of the product in each application. These forecasted growth rates are combined with the estimated baseline data to obtain the long-range forecasts at the LIC (product) and each application.

A full review of published information was also performed to supplement information obtained through interviews. The following sources were reviewed:

  • Trade press
·        Press releases
  • Financial reports and Product Roadmaps
  • Web site background information
  • Vendor production information
  • Patent and Intellectual Property (IP) analysis
  • End-User Application information
  • Other published information

In analyzing and forecasting the complexities of the American and other world region markets for wind turbine products, solar photovoltaic products and lithium-ion capacitors, it is essential that the market research team have a good and a deep understanding of the technology and of the industry. ElectroniCast members who participated in this report were qualified.

Bottom-up Methodology     ElectroniCast forecasts, as illustrated in the forecast data structure, are developed initially at the lowest detail level, then summed to successively higher levels.


About ElectroniCast

ElectroniCast, founded in 1981, specializes in forecasting technology and global market trends in fiber optics communication components and devices, as well providing market data on light emitting diodes used in lighting.

As an independent consultancy we offer multi-client and custom market research studies to the world's leading companies based on comprehensive, in- depth analysis of quantitative and qualitative factors. This includes technology forecasting, markets and applications forecasting, strategic planning, competitive analysis, customer-satisfaction surveys and marketing/sales consultation. ElectroniCast, founded as a technology-based independent consulting firm, meets the information needs of the investment community, industry planners and related suppliers.

ElectroniCast Fee Structure:

ElectroniCast has a one-price structure –
“Same company/same business group/same country"

(1) The report may be used by any employee of the client (subscriber) company/ organization at the same country and in the same business group.  Some business groups in the same company may occupy different locations; therefore, different locations are allowed, as long as they are in the same country. There is no limit on the number of employees that may use the report (independent contractors on assignment with the client company are not considered eligible and may not use/view the ElectroniCast report - see below).

(2) All data and other information contained in this report are proprietary to ElectroniCast and may not be distributed or provided in either original or reproduced form to anyone outside the client's internal employee organization, without prior written permission of ElectroniCast.

(3) ElectroniCast, in addition to multiple client programs, conducts proprietary custom studies for single clients in all areas of management planning and interest.  Other independent consultants, therefore, are considered directly competitive.  ElectroniCast proprietary information may not be provided to such consultants without written permission from ElectroniCast Consultants.

LICs in Wind and Solar Power Generation

Global Market Forecast & Analysis (2015-2025)

– Tables of Contents –

1.             Executive Summary                                                                                                                                           
1.1          Overview: Lithium-Ion Capacitor Market                                                                                                        
1.2          Solar Photovoltaic Technology- Overview                                                                                                      
1.3          Wind Power Systems - Overview                                                                                                                    
2.             Technology Overview: LIC and Relevant Concerns                                                                                    
3.             LIC in Wind and Solar Power Generation                                                                                                     
3.1          Overview: Global Market Forecast    (2015-2025)                                                                                        
3.2          America Market Forecast                                                                                                                                  
3.3          EMEA Market Forecast                                                                                                                                      
3.4          APAC Market Forecast                                                                                                                                       
4.             Lithium-Ion Capacitor Competitors & Related Entities *                                                                                            
5.             Market Research Methodology                                                                                                                        
6.             Definitions: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and General Terms                                                                       
7.             ElectroniCast Market Forecast Data Base – Introduction/Explanation of Excel Worksheets                              
7.1          Overview                                                                                                                                                               
7.2          Tutorial of the Excel Worksheets                                                                                                                     

Addendum            Excel File – ElectroniCast Market Forecast Data Base and Data Table
Addendum            PowerPoint File – ElectroniCast Data Figures

*  Companies included in chapter 4: Lithium-Ion Capacitor Competitors & Related Entities              

Asahi Kasei Corporation
Cornell Dubilier Electronics, Inc. (CDE)        
Corning Incorporated
FDK Corporation
Fuji Electric Systems Co., Ltd. (FES)
Fuji Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (FHI - Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd) (Subaru)
Fujikura Ltd.
General Capacitor International
UEC Electronics
Hitachi Powdered Metals
Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd.
Hitachi AIC Inc.
Ioxus Incorporated
JM Energy Corporation / JSR Group /
Socomec / Adetel Group / EAS Elettronica / Electro Standards Laboratories (ESL)
Tokyo Electron Ltd.
Ibiden Co., Ltd.
Tokyo Electron Ltd.,
Ibiden Co., Ltd.
New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)
Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc.
Meidensha Corporation
KAIDO Manufacturing Company, Ltd.
Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)
Maxwell Technologies
Mitsubishi Electric / Mitsubishi Corporation
Nantong Jianghai Capacitor Co. Ltd.
Advanced Capacitor Technologies (ACT)
Sojitz Corp (Sojitz)
Taiyo Yuden Co Ltd (Taiyo)
Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Capital Company Limited,

Yasuda Enterprise Development Company Limited
Nanjing University
Nanjing Aviation & Aerospace University
NEC Energy Devices, Ltd.
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.,
Automotive Energy Supply Corporation (AESC)
Nippon Chemi-Con Corporation
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
K&W   Company
Osaka Prefecture University Small Spacecraft Systems Research Center (SSSRC)
Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd.
Taiyo Yuden Co., Ltd.
Yunasko Ltd. / Yunasko-Ukraine LLC / Yunasko-Latvia SIA / Power Tech

– List of Tables –

1.1.1       LICs Comparison to Other Technologies                                                                                                     
1.1.2       LICs in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Market Forecast, by Region ($ Million)                 
1.1.3       LICs in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Market Forecast, by End-User ($ Million)             
1.1.4       LICs in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Forecast, Renewable Energy Product ($ Million)               
1.2.1       Top 10 PV Solar Module Manufacturers (2015)                                                                                           
2.1          LICs Measurement Specifications                                                                                                                 
3.1.1       LICs Used in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)  
3.1.2       LICs Used in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Forecast, by Region ($ Million)                   
3.1.3       LICs in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Forecast, Renewable Energy Product ($ Million)               
3.1.4       LICs Used in Hybrid Wind/Solar Power Generation Global Forecast, by Region ($ Million)                              
3.1.5       LICs Used in Wind Power Generation Global Forecast, by Region ($ Million)                                      
3.1.6       LICs Used in Solar PV Power Generation Global Forecast, by Region ($ Million)                                               
3.1.7       Typical Luminous Efficacies for Traditional and LED Sources                                                                 
3.1.8       Members of NGLIA                                                                                                                                             
3.1.9       Members - CERC Building Energy Efficiency Consortium                                                                        
3.2.1       LICs Used in Wind and Solar Power Generation American Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)     
3.2.2       LICs Used in Wind and Solar Power Generation American Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)             
3.2.3       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Generation USA/Canada Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)               
3.2.4       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Generation Latin American Forecast, End-User Group ($ Million)
3.2.5       LICs in Wind/Solar Power Generation American Forecast, Renewable Energy Product ($ Million)
3.2.6       LICs Used in Hybrid Wind/Solar Power Generation American Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)                
3.2.7       LICs Used in Wind Power Generation American Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)                        
3.2.8       LICs Used in Solar PV Power Generation American Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)                 
3.2.9       Latin American Demographics                                                                                                                       
3.3.1       European Sub-Regions as identified by the United Nations Geo-scheme                                                           
3.3.2       Population in Northern Europe, by Country                                                                                                   
3.3.3       Population in Southern Europe, by Country                                                                                                  
3.3.4       Population in Western Europe, by Country                                                                                                   
3.3.5       Population in Eastern Europe, by Country                                                                                                    
3.3.6       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Generation EMEA Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)                    
3.3.7       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Generation EMEA Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)            

– List of Tables – Continued

3.3.8       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Gen. Northern Europe Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)    
3.3.9       LICs Used in Wind/Power Gen. Southern Europe Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)                              
3.3.10     LICs Used in Wind/ Power Generation Western Europe Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)  
3.3.11     LICs Used in Wind Power Generation Eastern Europe Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)    
3.3.12     LICs Used in Wind Power Generation Middle East/Africa Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)
3.3.13     LICs in Wind/Solar Power Generation EMEA Forecast, Renewable Energy Product ($ Million)        
3.3.14     LICs Used in Hybrid Wind/Solar Power Generation EMEA Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)       
3.3.15     LICs Used in Wind Power Generation EMEA Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)                                              
3.3.16     LICs Used in Solar PV Power Generation EMEA Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)                        
3.4.1       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Generation APAC Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)                    
3.4.2       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Generation APAC Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)            
3.4.3       LICs in Wind/Solar Power Gen. People’s Republic of China Forecast, End-User Group ($ Million)                
3.4.4       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Gen. Japan Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)                       
3.4.5       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Gen. Republic of Korea Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)
3.4.6       LICs Used in Wind/Solar Power Generation Rest of APAC Forecast, by End-User Group ($ Million)              
3.4.7       LICs in Wind/Solar Power Generation APAC Forecast, Renewable Energy Product ($ Million)        
3.4.8       LICs Used in Hybrid Wind/Solar Power Generation APAC Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)       
3.4.9       LICs Used in Wind Power Generation APAC Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)                                               
3.4.10     LICs Used in Solar PV Power Generation APAC Forecast, by Sub-Region ($ Million)                        
3.4.11     List of ELCOMA Members                                                                                                                                                
4.1          Lithium Ion Capacitor Specifications                                                                                                             
4.2          Cylinder Type Lithium Ion Capacitors                                                                                                            

– List of Figures –

1.1.1       Energy Density vs. Power Density for LIC with Different Technologies                                                   
1.1.2       LICs used in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Forecast ($ Million)                                        
1.1.3       LICs used in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Forecast (Quantity Basis, Million/Farad)   
1.1.4       LICs used in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Forecast (ASP per Farad)                                             
1.1.5       Product Life Cycle (PLC)                                                                                                                                                     
1.1.6       Hybrid Wind/Solar Systems                                                                                                                             
1.1.7       LICs used in Wind and Solar Power Generation Global Forecast, by End-User Group, ($ Million)  
1.1.8       Wind Power Station                                                                                                                                           
1.1.9       LED Lighting Using Lithium-Ion Capacitors                                                                                                 
1.1.10     Wind Power/Solar Photovoltaic LED Lighting                                                                                               
1.1.11     Solar/Wind Powered Traffic Signs                                                                                                                  
1.2.1       Photovoltaic Cell, Module and Array                                                                                                               
1.2.2       Solar Cell Efficiencies – Including 2015                                                                                                        
1.2.3       3-Dimensional Solar Cell Technology                                                                                                           
1.3.1       Small Wind Electrical System                                                                                                                          
1.3.2       Re-Mounting a Rotor on a Wind Turbines                                                                                                     
2.1          Energy Density and Power Density Comparisons                                                                                      
2.2          High Performance Lithium Ion Capacitors                                                                                                   
2.3          LICs Fabricated using LMCMBs                                                                                                                     
2.4          Advanced Lithium Ion Capacitor                                                                                                                     
2.5          Cathode Active material for LIC                                                                                                                       
2.6          Ultra-Centrifugal Processing Technology                                                                                                     
2.7          Electrochemical Difference: EDLC and Lithium Ion Capacitors                                                                               
2.8          High-performance LIC Developed With CNT, Lithium Titanate                                                                
2.9          Electrode: Composite material and Aluminum Alloy Current Collector                                                  
2.10        Peanut Shell Hybrid Sodium Ion Capacitor                                                                                                  
2.11        Evolution of Research Emphasis during Technology Life Cycle                                                              
3.1.1       Hybrid (Combined) Wind/Solar Electric System                                                                                          
3.2.1       Lithium Mining Potential - Uyuni Salt Flat in Bolivia                                                                                     
3.2.1       LED-Based Street Lamps Used With Solar Panel in Mexico                                                                    
4.1a        LIC for Standby                                                                                                                                                   

– List of Figures – Continued

4.1b        LIC for Standby                                                                                                                                                   
4.2          Circuit Diagram of Lithium Ion Capacitor                                                                                                      
4.3          Lithium-ion (Li-ion) capacitor module for HEVs                                                                                           
4.4          Packaged Lithium Ion Capacitor                                                                                                                     
4.5          Transportable Tactical Solar Panels in Military Applications                                                                     
4.6          Lithium-ion Capacitor                                                                                                                        
4.7          Ultra-capacitor, Lithium-ion and Lithium-air Energy Storage Device                                                       
4.8          1200 Farad - Ultra Capacitors                                                                                                                         
4.9          Laminate Cell                                                                                                                                                     
4.10        Laminate Cell Module (up to 12 cells per module)                                                                                     
4.11        Prismatic-Can Structure for a Lithium Ion Capacitor                                                                                  
4.12        Prismatic Cell Module                                                                                                                                       
4.13        Interior Lithium Ion Capacitor Board                                                                                                              
4.14        LIC Equipment Module                                                                                                                                     
4.15        Electric Double-Layer Capacitor Prototype                                                                                                   
4.16        Structure of (3 x 3cm) Prototype                                                                                                                       
4.17        Lithium-Ion Battery (Cell) for Electric Vehicles                                                                                             
4.18        Nano-Hybrid Capacitors                                                                                                                                   
4.19        Lithium-Ion Capacitor – Space/Satellite Application                                                                                   
4.20        Cylindrical Lithium Ion Capacitor                                                                                                                    
4.21        Prismatic Shape / Pouch Type Lithium-Ion Capacitor                                                                                                
4.22        Lithium-Ion Capacitor Module 48V 165F                                                                                                       
4.23        Image of the Nanoporous Material Structure Under Electrone Microscope                                           
4.24        Illustration of Ultracapacitor                                                                                                                             
4.25        Prismatic Shape  - Illustration of Ultracapacitor                                                                                           
5.1                Market Research & Forecasting Methodology